1 HRS SNM/VOICE CEU
 

 


RISK FACTORS FROM BEHAVIORS AND RADIATION EXPOSURE

NATURAL WHOLE BODY BACKGROUND

At sea level it averages 250-300 mR. There are several principal sources of background radiation in humans: cosmic radiation, minerals in soil and building materials, Radon gas emanating from the soil, and naturally occurring K40, C14 in our bodies.

MINOR CONTRIBUTORS TO BACKGROUND

They include radiocontaminants in the food chain, emissions from Nuclear power plants, and flying in aircraft.

At the height of 1 mile in the atmosphere, residents of Denver have a background dose twice that of people living at sea level. While it might sound logical that, because they are 1 mile closer to the sun, they have lost protection due to the inverse square law, that is not the case at all. The effect of 1 mile out of 93,000,000 miles is insignificant. The real reason is that the air over the heads of residents of Denver is much less dense than the air at sea level and therefore it cannot attenuate cosmic rays as well. In addition, there is more radioactivity in the soil in Denver than in most US cities located at sea level.

There are several locations on earth where radium and uranium are plentiful in soil and the background may reach 7,000 mR/yr.

Risks which increase the chance of death by 4 in 10,000 = The Fatal Cancer Risk from 1 REM

RISKY BEHAVIOR/SITUATION CAUSE OF DEATH
Smoking 28 packs of cigarettes Cancer, heart disease
Drinking 200 liters of wine Cirrhosis of the liver
Spending 400 hours in a coal mine Black lung disease
Spending 1200 hours in a coal mine Accident
Living 2 years in New York or Boston Air pollution
Traveling 40 hours by canoe Accident
Traveling 70 hours by bicycle Accident
Traveling 20,000 miles by car Accident
Flying 400,000 miles by jet Accident
Flying 600,000 miles by jet Cancer from cosmic radiation
Living 7 years in Denver Cancer from cosmic radiation
Living 17 years in a stone/brick Bldg. Cancer from natural radiation
500 chest x-rays Cancer from radiation
20 screening mammography studies Cancer from radiation
Living 33 years with a cigarette smoker Cancer and Heart Disease
1600 tablespoons of peanut butter Liver cancer from aflatoxin B
Drinking Miami water for 400 years Cancer from chloroform
Eating 40,000 charcoal broiled steaks Cancer from benzopyrene
Living 500 years at the boundary of nuclear power plant in the open Cancer from Radiation

 

Radiographic Procedures: Dosimetry (Estimated)

PROCEDURE ESTIMATED DOSE
Chest film (anterior) 10 mR
Chest film (lateral) 42 mR
Abdominal X-ray 300 mR entry dose, 25 mR whole body
Skull X-ray 250 mR entry dose
Lateral lumbar spine 600-700 mR entry dose
CT Scan (Contin. slices) 4-5 R per exam
Cardiac catheterization 50-150 R
Fluoroscopy 2-3 R/min
Lower GI series 5R entry dose


 
 

 


 

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    January 12, 2010